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25 апреля 2009 | Автор: Admin | Рубрика: Научная литература » Социология | Комментариев: 0

National Biometric Test Center Collected Works James L. Wayman, Director, U.S. National Biometric Test Center
College of Engineering San Jose State University San Jose, California 1997-2000 | 287 Pages | ISBN R20071030E | PDF | 1.6 MB

The National Biometric Test Center was created at San Jose State University in April, 1997, by the Biometric Consortium, which is the U.S. government interest group on biometric authentication. At the 7th Biometric Consortium meeting held in March of 1995 at the FBI training facility in Quantico, VA, each of 5 competing proponents was required to state their concept for the Test Center. San Jose State proposed that the Test Center, rather than simply testing commercial products, should seek to advance the fundamental scientific understanding of biometric identification. This directional emphasis became important when, after the award, it was determined that the Test Center would not be allowed to directly collect biometric data from U.S. citizens because of its affiliation with the Department of Defense. We ultimately came to view the data collection prohibition as a good thing, as through it, we were forced to obtain data from operational installations with populations far broader than our students and from environments far more challenging than our laboratory spaces The purpose to this “Collected Works” is to document the writings the many researchers working with or at the National Biometric Test Center during the three-and-one-half years between its inception in 1997 and the completion of its mission at the end of September, 2000. During this period, the Test Center received a total of $1.2M in federal government funding. Certainly, the Test Center was tasked with far more than simply writing technical papers. Archiving and disseminating information on biometrics, communicating findings to other groups and government agencies, participating on standards committees, and supporting a broad range of projects across many agencies were also fundamental activities of the Test Center. The writings, however, document concretely the scientific and mathematical progress made, and allow for the contributions of the Test Center to be reviewed by others in the field. Far from being the “last word” on any of these issues, these papers are intended only to stimulate academic and scientific debate on the nature of biometric identification. It is hoped that their publication in this volume will lead to active discussion and the discovery of new approaches and concepts.

Table of Contents
Forward i
Introduction iii
Fundamentals of Biometric Authentication Technologies 1
A Definition of “Biometrics” 21
Generalized Biometric Identification System Model 25
Evaluation of the INSPASS Hand Geometry Data 33
SAG Problem 97-2-1 41
Convolution Methods for Mathematical Problems in Biometrics 45
On the “30 error” criterion 51
Some Observations on the Cumulative Binomial Probability Distribution 57
Technical Testing and Evaluation of Biometric Identification Devices 65
Confidence Interval and Test Size Estimation for Biometric Data 89
Error Rate Equations for the General Biometric System 101
Memo on Non-Identically Distributed Bernoulli Model Problems for
System Performance Prediction 127
Non-identically distributed Bernoulli sums 131
Large-Scale Civilian Biometric Systems—Issues and Feasibility 137
Continuing Controversy Over the Technical Feasibility of Large-Scale Systems 157
The Philippine AFIS Benchmark Test Results 159
Philippine Social Security System Inaugurates Huge Civilian ID Card/AFIS
System 167
The “Penetration Rate” in Automatic Fingerprint Identification Systems 171
Sample of the k Largest Order Statistics 173
Multi-Finger Penetration Rate and ROC Variability for Automatic
Fingerprint Identification Systems 177
A Survey of Face Recognition Algorithms and Testing Results 189
“Degrees of Freedom” as Related to Biometric Device Performance 199
Engineering Tradeoffs in Biometric API Design 207
Best Practices in Testing and Reporting Performance of Biometric Devices 219
When Bad Science Leads to Good Law: The Disturbing Irony of the
Daubert Hearing in the Case of US V Byron C Mitchell 235
The Federal Legislative Basis for Government Applications of
Biometric Technologies 241
Biometric Identification Technologies in Election Processes—Summary Report 251
Biometric Identification and the Financial Services Industry 261
Picture ID: Help or Hindrance? Do People Really Look at the Picture
on a Picture ID? 265
Picking the Best Biometric for Your Applications 267
Biometric Authentication Standards Development 275


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