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25 апреля 2009 | Автор: Admin | Рубрика: Научная литература » Социология | Комментариев: 0

The Young Turks in Opposition (Studies in Middle Eastern History) by M. Sukru Hanioglu
Oxford University Press, USA | March 1995 | ISBN: 0195091159 | 408 pages | PDF | 22.8 MB

In 1908, the revolution of the Young Turks deposed the dictatorship of Sultan Abdulhamid II and established a constitutional regime that became the major ruling power in the Ottoman empire. But the seeds of this revolution went back much farther: to 1889, when the secret Young Turk organization the Committee of Union and Progress was formed. M. Sukru Hanioglu's landmark work is the story of the power struggles within the CUP and its impact on twentieth-century Turkish politics and culture. An in-depth history of an ideological movement as well as a study of the diplomatic relationships between the Ottoman Empire and the so-called great powers of Europe at the turn of the century, it analyzes the influence of European political thought on the CUP conspirators, and traces their influence on generations of Turkish intellectual and political life.

Review at Middle East Quarterly, June 1995

Hanioglu, an associate professor at Princeton University, has opened up a virtually new topic with his intensive research of the thinking, structure, and activities of the Young Turks between 1889 and 1902. He argues persuasively for the importance of this topic by pointing out that Young Turks ruled the Ottoman Empire for nearly all of the period 1908-18; that former members ran the country until 1960; and that even today, the official state ideology shows the influence of ideas dating to that period. Perhaps Hanioglu's most original conclusion concerns his argument that the Young Turks constituted three quite distinct movements.

The research base of "Young Turks in Opposition" deserves comment, being one of the most prodigious this reviewer has seen. Hanioglu's relatively slight text of 216 pages contains over 2,500 footnotes, or some twelve per page, or one every four lines. And what footnotes! The author has done extensive research in the archives of twelve countries, including those of Albania, Greece, Israel, and Sweden. His work in the Turkish archives includes not just the usual Istanbul documents, but with those located at the Ottoman embassies in London, Paris, and Rome. He searched out the private papers of twenty-four individuals in places as disparate as Thessaloniki, Edinburgh, and New Haven. The list of periodicals consulted runs to over five pages. This heroic scholarly apparatus is by no means for show purposes; quite the contrary, it closely undergirds the author's weighty and original study.


Muslim, Armenian, Greek leaders together
during the Declaration of the Constitution
in 1908


Note on Transliteration, xi

1. Introduction, 3

2. Ideological Roots of the Young Turks, 7
Westernization as an Instrument of Change, 7
Contemporary Science and Its Impact on Ottoman Thinking, 10
The Tug of War between Conservatives and Modernists, 13
The Young Turks and Modernization, 16
How Contemporary Science Colored Young Turk Thinking, 18
Bureaucracy Challenged: Loyalty versus Merit, 23
Constitutionalism, "Parliament," and the Young Turks, 28

3. The CUP, Other Opposition Forces, and the Sultan, 33
Relations between the Freemasons, the Young Turks, and the CUP, 33
Le Parti Constitutionnel en Turquie and Its Relations with the CUP, 41
Le Comite Turco-Syrien and Its Relations with the CUP, 44
The Role of the Ulema and the Sufi Orders in the Opposition Movement- Their Relations with the CUP, 49
The Supporters of a Palace Coup d'fitat and Their Connections with the CUP, 58
Individual Initiatives and the CUP, 67

4. The Rise of the CUP in Ottoman Politics:
The Formative Years of the Committee, 71
The Founding of the CUP and Its Early Activities, 71
The CUP as a Political Organization, 1895-1897, 78
The CUP Organization in Europe and in Egypt, 1895-1896, 78
The Istanbul Branch and the 1896 Coup d'Etat Attempt, 84
The CUP Organization in the Regions, 86
Establishment of the CUP Network in the Balkans, 1895-1896, 89
The CUP under the Direction of Murad Bey, 90
The European Organization, 90
The Egyptian Branch, 101
The Istanbul Center, 104
The Provincial Organization of the CUP and the 1897 Coup d'Etat
Attempt in Syria, 105
The Balkan Organization, 109

5. Petty Intrigue and Conspiracy:
The CUP, 1898-1900, 110
The Reorganization of 1898, 110
The European Organization, 110
The Egyptian Branch, 119
The Istanbul Center and the CUP Network within the Empire, 120
The Balkan Organization, 122
The Activities of the Geneva Center in Late 1898 and Negotiations with the Palace, 124
The CUP and the Young Turks until the Flight of Damad Mahmud Pasha, 126
The Geneva Center and the Paris Branch, 126
The Egyptian Branch, 136
The CUP Organization within the Empire, 138
The Balkan Organization, New Branches in North Africa and Central Asia, and the CUP in Cyprus, 140

6. The CUP in the Hands of the High-Ranking Conspirators, 142
The Flight of Damad Mahmud Pasha and Its Consequences, 142
Damad Mahmud Pasha and the Geneva Center, 145
The Rise of the Pro-British Group under Damad Mahmud Pasha and the CUP Center in England, 146
The Paris Branch of the CUP, 156
The "Activists" in Geneva, 158
The Young Turks in Egypt, 162
The CUP Center in Istanbul and Activities in the Empire, 164
The Balkan Organization, 165
The CUP and the Ottoman Opposition prior to the 1902 Congress, 166

7. Organizational Transformation of the CUP, 1889-1902, 167

8. The First Congress of Ottoman Opposition in Paris and Its Consequences, 173
Final Activities before the Congress, 173
The Organization of the Congress, 180
The First Congress of Ottoman Opposition, 188
Consequences of the Congress, 197

9 The Political Ideas of the Young Turks, 200
Islam as a Tool of Modernization, 200
The Young Turks and Positivism, 203
The Young Turks and Elitism, 205
Materialism, Race, and Nationalism, 208

10. Conclusion, 213

Abbreviations, 217
Notes, 219
Selected Bibliography, 359
Index, 381

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