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28 апреля 2009 | Автор: Admin | Рубрика: Научная литература » Социология | Комментариев: 0

Weapons of Terror, Freeing the World of Nuclear, Biological and Chemical Arms Hans Blix, WMDC Chairman Weapons Of Mass Destruction Commission (WMDC)
Publisher: Wigan Metropolitan Borough Council 2006 | 230 Pages | ISBN: 9138225824 | PDF | 1.4 MB


Nuclear, biological and chemical arms are the most inhumane of all weapons. Designed to terrify as well as destroy, they can, in the hands of either states or non-state actors, cause destruction on a vastly greater scale than any conventional weapons, and their impact is far more indiscriminate and long-lasting.

So long as any state has such weapons – especially nuclear arms – others will want them. So long as any such weapons remain in any state’s arsenal, there is a high risk that they will one day be used, by design or accident. Any such use would be catastrophic. Notwithstanding the end of the Cold War balance of terror, stocks of such weapons remain extraordinarily and alarmingly high: some 27,000 in the case of nuclear weapons, of which around 12,000 are still actively deployed.

Weapons of mass destruction cannot be uninvented. But they can be outlawed, as biological and chemical weapons already have been, and their use made unthinkable. Compliance, verification and enforcement rules can, with the requisite will, be effectively applied. And with that will, even the eventual elimination of nuclear weapons is not beyond the world’s reach. Over the past decade, there has been a serious, and dangerous, loss of momentum and direction in disarmament and non-proliferation efforts. Treaty making and implementation have stalled and, as a new wave of proliferation has threatened, unilateral enforcement action has been increasingly advocated.

In 2005 there were two loud wake-up calls in the failure of the NPT Review Conference and in the inability of the World Summit to agree on a single line about any WMD issue. It is critical for those calls to be heeded now.

DoWnLoAd FiLe



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Political Science
Government - National
Politics / International Relations
Political Freedom & Security - International Security

Front Cover
Title Place
Chairman’s preface
Chapter 1. Reviving disarmament
Why weapons of mass destruction matter
Disarmament in disarray
The aim and approach of this report
Chapter 2. Weapons of terror: threats and responses
The nature of threats from weapons of mass destruction
Nuclear-weapon threats
Biological-weapon threats
Chemical-weapon threats
Traditional responses to threats of weapons of mass destruction
Unilateral responses
Bilateral responses
Plurilateral responses
Regional responses
Global responses
Weaknesses in traditional responses
Lack of universality
Inadequate verification
Lack of enforcement
New responses to threats from weapons of terror
Three conclusions for collective action
Chapter 3. Nuclear weapons
Preventing the proliferation of nuclear weapons
The Non-Proliferation Treaty
Evolving treaty commitments
Cases of non-compliance
Security assurances
The fuel cycle: controlling the production of enriched uranium and plutonium
Fissile material clean-out
Regional issues and arrangements
Preventing nuclear terrorism
How could terrorists acquire nuclear weapons?
Physical protection measures
Reducing the threat and the numbers of existing nuclear weapons
The need to re-examine and revise nuclear doctrines
Deployment of nuclear weapons
New limits on deployments of non-strategic nuclear weapons
Development of new nuclear weapons
Disposal of fissile material from warheads
Ending production of weapons-usable fissile material: a fissile material cut-off treaty
Ending all nuclear-weapon tests: the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty
From regulating nuclear weapons to outlawing them
Chapter 4. Biological and toxin weapons
Prohibition of biological weapons
Prospects for the future
Strengthening the role of the Convention
National implementation
Institutional deficit
Implementation of the Convention
Life sciences and the role of scientists
Chapter 5. Chemical weapons
The Chemical Weapons Convention
Destroying the chemical-weapon stockpiles
Promoting universality
Non-lethal weapons, incapacitants and riot control agents
Enhancing the CWC’s inspection and monitoring capacity
Chemical terrorism
The threat of terrorist attacks against chemical industry
Chapter 6. Delivery means, missile defences, and weapons in space
Means of WMD delivery
Missile defences
The weaponization of space
Current status of the outer space security regime
Chapter 7. Export controls, international assistance, and non-governmental actors
Export controls and other controls on the movement of goods
Control of movement of goods
International assistance for non-proliferation and disarmament
Sectoral roles: business, research, voluntary organizations and the public
The responsibility of companies and the business sector
The responsibility of scientists: codes of conduct
Democratic control: role of representative institutions
Democratic control: NGOs and transparency
Public information and education
Chapter 8. Compliance, verification, enforcement and the role of the United Nations
The role of the United Nations
The United Nations disarmament machinery
The role of the UN Security Council
Beyond WMD
ANNEX 1: WMDC recommendations
ANNEX 2: Work of the commission
Mandate of the Commission
Commissioners’ biographies
Financial and organizational support
Commission’s sessions
Seminars and other public meetings
Published WMDC studies


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