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28 июля 2009 | Автор: Admin | Рубрика: Научная литература » Социология | Комментариев: 0

Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, the Falcon of Pakistan
Szabist | 2002-01 | ISBN: 969866601X | 400 pages | PDF | 4 MB

Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto was born on January 5, 1928. He was the only son of Sir Shah Nawaz Bhutto. Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto completed his early education from Bombay's Cathedral High School. In 1947, he joined the University of Southern California, and later the University of California at Berkeley in June 1949. After completing his degree with honors in Political Science at Berkeley in June 1950, he was admitted to Oxford.

Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto married Nusrat Isphahani on September 8, 1951. He was called to Bar at Lincoln's Inn in 1953, and the same year his first child, Benazir Bhutto, was born on June 21. On his return to Pakistan, Bhutto started practicing Law at Dingomal's.

In 1958, he joined President Iskander Mirza's Cabinet as Commerce Minister. He was the youngest Minister in Ayub Khans Cabinet. In 1963, he took over the post of Foreign Minister from Muhammad Ali Bogra.

His first major achievement was to conclude the Sino-Pakistan boundary agreement on March 2, 1963. In mid 1964, Bhutto helped convince Ayub of the wisdom of establishing closer economic and diplomatic links with Turkey and Iran. The trio later on formed the R. C. D. In June 1966, Bhutto left Ayub's Cabinet over differences concerning the Tashkent Agreement.

Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto launched Pakistan Peoples Party after leaving Ayub's Cabinet. In the general elections held in December 1970, P. P. P. won a large majority in West Pakistan but failed to reach an agreement with Sheikh Mujib-ur-Rahman, the majority winner from East Pakistan. Following the 1971 War and the separation of East Pakistan, Yahya Khan resigned and Bhutto took over as President and Chief Martial Law Administrator on December 20, 1971.

In early 1972, Bhutto nationalized ten categories of major industries, and withdrew Pakistan from the Commonwealth of Nations and S. E. A. T. O. when Britain and other western countries recognized the new state of Bangladesh. On March 1, he introduced land reforms, and on July 2, 1972, signed the Simla Agreement with India, which paved the way for the return of occupied lands and the release of Pakistani prisoners captured in East Pakistan in the 1971 war.

After the National Assembly passed the 1973 Constitution, Bhutto was sworn-in as the Prime Minister of the country.

On December 30, 1973, Bhutto laid the foundation of Pakistan's first steel mill at Pipri, near Karachi. On January 1, 1974, Bhutto nationalized all banks. On February 22, 1974, the second Islamic Summit was inaugurated in Lahore. Heads of States of most of the 38 Islamic countries attended the Summit.

Following a political crisis in the country, Bhutto was imprisoned by General Zia-ul-Haq, who imposed Martial Law on July 5, 1977.

On April 4, 1979, the former Prime Minister was hanged, after the Supreme Court upheld the death sentence passed by the Lahore High Court. The High Court had given him the death sentence on charges of murder of the father of a dissident P. P. P. politician.

Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto was buried in his ancestral village at Garhi Khuda Baksh, next to his father's grave.

Zulfikar Ali Bhutto
Chairman & Founder
Pakistan Peoples Party


Name Zulfikar Ali Bhutto

Date of Birth January 5, 1928

Place of Birth Larkana District

Father's Name Sir Shahnawaz Khan Bhutto

Mother's Name Lady Khursheed Begum

Mother Tongue Sindhi


Married at Karachi to Ms Nusrat Ispahani September 8, 1951


Benazir Bhutto - 1953

Murtaza Bhutto - 1954 - 1996

Sanam Bhutto - 1957

Shahnawaz Bhutto - 1958 - 1985


Cathedral School, Bombay - 1937 - 1947

Joined University of Southern California - 1947

Transferred to Berkely Campus of USC - 1949

First Asian to be elected to Berkely Student Council

Graduated with Honours in Political Science - 1950

Admitted to Christ Church College, Oxford - 1950

Graduated with Honours from Oxford University - 1952

Called to the Bar at Lincoln's Inn - 1953

Lecturer of Sindh Muslim Law College – 1954

Member of Pakistan Delegation to the United Nations - 1957

Addressed the United Nations Sixth Committee on Aggression - October 25, 1957

Leader of Pakistan Delegation to United Nations Conference on the Law of the Seas, addressed the Conference on the Freedom of the Seas.- March - 1958


Minister of Commerce - 1958

Minister for Information and National Reconstruction - 1959

Minister for Fuel, Power and Natural Resources - 1960

Leader of Pakistan Delegation to the UN - 1959, 1960, 1963 & 1965

Statement in support of Algeria against French Imperialism at UN - 1959

Leader of Pakistan Delegation to Moscow to negotiate agreement on Oil and Gas Exploration with Soviet Union with 120 Million Roubles credit - 1960

Led Pakistan's Delegation to UN and differed with US by not voting against China's Membership - 1960

Foreign Minister of Pakistan - 1963 – 1965

Sino-Pakistan Boundary Agreement, gaining 750 Square Miles for Pakistan 2nd March - 1963

Famous Speech at the U.N. Security Council "We will wage a war for a thousand years" - 22-23 September 1965

Resigned from the Federal Cabinet - June, 1966


Historic welcome in Lahore after resignation as Foreign Minister - 21st June, 1966

Manifesto of Pakistan Peoples Party prepared

"Islam is our Faith, Democracy is our Policy, Socialism is our Economy, All Power to the People". October, 1966

Foundation of Pakistan Peoples Party, Lahore - 30th November, 1967

Led Mass Movement for Restoration of Democracy - 1968

Arrested for creating disaffection against Government-November 12, 1968

Landslide victory for PPP in 1970 elections in present day Pakistan - December 7, 1970


Economic Reforms Order Nationalisation of Key Industries - January 3, 1972

Announcement of Labour Policies - February 10, 1972

Workers would participate in Profits

Old Age Pensions and Group Insurance

Land Reforms - 1st March, 1973

Ceiling reduced from 500 Acres to 150 Acres of irrigated land and 1000 Acres to 300 Acres for semi-irrigated land. All lands in excess of 100 Acres allocated to Govt. Servants confiscated and redistributed.

The Law Reform Ordinance - giving effect to the recommendations of the Law Reforms Commission. - 14th April, 1972

Martial Law Lifted 21st April, 1972

Simla Agreement Signed

Pakistan to get back 5000 square miles of territory occupied in 1971 war. India and Pakistan to respect line of control in Kashmir without prejudice to Pakistan's claim. - 2nd July, 1972

National Book Foundation established - 24th September, 1972

Inaugurated Pakistan's first Nuclear Power Plant at Karachi. - 28th November, 1972

Establishment of NDFC - 5th February, 1973

Establishment of Quaid-E-Azam University - 9th February, 1973

Constitution of Pakistan passed unanimously - 12th April, 1973

Establishment of Port Qasim Authority - 27th June, 1973

Elected Prime Minister of Pakistan - 14th August, 1973

Identity Cards for Citizens - 28th July, 1973

Agreement for repatriation of 93,000 POWs - 28th August, 1973

Administrative Reforms Order - September, 1973

Laid Foundation Stone of Pakistan Steel Mill - 30th December, 1973

Nationalisation of Banks - 1st January, 1974

Establishment of Allama Iqbal Open University - 21st May, 1974

Islamic Summit at Lahore - 22nd February, 1975

Inaugurated Pakistan's First Seerat Conference - 3rd March, 1976

Kissinger warned Zulfikar Ali Bhutto that if Pakistan continued with its nuclear programme "the Prime Minister would have to pay a heavy price." - August, 1976

Bhutto proposed a Third World Summit - September, 1976


General Elections were held on March 7, 1977. PPP emerged as the victorious Party. At the behest of General Ziaul Haq, PNA accused government of so-called rigging in the elections. Negotiations with PNA resumed. An Agreement was reached on June 8, 1977 for holding Fresh Elections on October 8, 1977.

On July 5, 1977 COAS General Ziaul Haq imposed Martial Law unilaterally. The National Assembly, the Senate and Provincial Assemblies were dissolved and Constitution held in abeyance.

Zia's Military Junta established a dummy government of PNA with CMLA as President. Zulfikar Ali Bhutto arrested on July, 5, 1977 and released on July 28, 1977.

Re-arrested on September 3, 1977 from Clifton, Karachi, on the charges of a fabricated murder case; again released on September 13, 1977 against Lahore High Court bail. Re-arrested at Larkana on September 17, 1977.

On September, 1977 the Chief Justice of Pakistan, Mr. Justice Yakub Ali Khan was suspended from service because he had admitted Mrs. Nusrat Bhuto's Petition challenging imposition of martial law.

On October 9, 1977, Maulvi Mushtaq, Chief Justice, Lahore High Court, cancelled the bail already granted to Zulfikar Ali Bhutto by LHC.

Mercilessly and despicably murdered on April 4, 1979.

Zulfikar Ali Bhutto as 'Author'

List of Publication

Peace-Keeping by the United Nations. Pakistan Publishing House, Karachi. - 1967

Political Situation in Pakistan, Veshasher Prakashan, New Dehli. – 1968

The Myth of Independence, Oxford University Press, Karachi and Lahore. - 1969

The Great Tragedy, Pakistan People's Party, Karachi. - 1971

Politics of the People (speeches, statements and articles), edited by Hamid Jalal and Khalid Hasan: Pakistan Publications, Rawalpindi. - 1948-1971

Speeches and Statements, Government of Pakistan, Karachi. - 1971-75

Bilateralism: New Directions. Government of Pakistan, Islamabad - 1976

The Third World: New Directions. Quartet Books, London. - 1977

My Pakistan. Biswin Sadi Publications, New Dehli. - 1979

If I am Assassinated, Vikas, New Dehli. - 1979

My Execution. Musawaat Weekly International, London - 1980

New Directions. Narmara Publishers, London. - 1980


As a member of Pakistan's delegation to the United Nation in 1957, at the age of 29 years, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto addressed the Sixth Conference of the United Nations on "The Definition of Aggression", a speech which is still regarded as one of the best on the subject. As a participant at the International Conference in Geneva, Switzerland in March, 1958 Zulfikar Ali Bhutto spoke for mankind with the bold declaration: "The High Seas are free to all." He was the youngest Federal Cabinet member in the history of Pakistan, at the age of 30. Zulfikar Ali Bhutto held the key portfolios of Minister of Commerce, Minister of Information, Minister of National Reconstruction, Minister of Fuel, Power and Natural Resources before becoming the Foreign Minister. As Minister of Fuel, Power and Natural Resources, he signed a path breaking agreement for exploration of oil and gas with Russia in 1960. He set up a Gas and Mineral Development Corporation in 1961 and Pakistan's first refinery in 1962 at Karachi.

Bhutto emerged on the world stage as Leader of the Pakistan Delegation to the UN in 1959. To muster the support for Kashmir issue he successfully toured China, Britain, Egypt and Ireland. He also held a series of talks with the Indian Foreign Minister Swaran Singh. He was appointed Foreign Minister in 1963 and remained at that post until his resignation in June 1966. Bhutto made indelible imprints on world community by his inimitable oratorical skills in United Nation's General Assembly and the Security Council. He had the vision to build a strategic relationship with China at a time when it was isolated. Zulfikar Ali Bhutto believed in an independent Foreign Policy which had hitherto been the hand maiden of the Western Powers. During his tenure as Foreign Minister, Pakistan and Iran cemented a special relationship. His opposition to the Tashkent accord between India and Pakistan led to his resignation from the government. Zulfikar Ali Bhutto believed in a Foreign Policy of bilateralism in which no state would be entitled to interfere in Pakistan's relations with other states.

During his student days, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto had acquired an anti-Imperialist view of the world. He was a firm believer in economic self reliance and political independence themes he expounded in his famous book "Myth of Independence". Bhutto's finest hour came in the reconstruction of Pakistan after the traumatic dismemberment of Pakistan upon the fall of Dhaka on 16th December, 1971. He successfully put the derailed nation back on the track by rebuilding national institutions. His lasting achievement was the unanimous adoption of the Constitution in 1973. He established the Pakistan Steel Mills, Heavy Mechanical Complex Taxila, Port Qasim Authority, Quaid-e-Azam University, Allama Iqbal Open University, Karachi Nuclear Power Plant; thus, fortifying the prosperity, integrity and security of Pakistan. Using his experience as Foreign Minister, Bhutto cemented Pakistan's relation with Afro-Asian and Islamic countries and by 1976 had emerged as the Leader of the Third World. As an author, he brilliantly advocated the cause of hewers of wood and drawers of water of the Third World.

Bhutto was the founder of Pakistan's Nuclear Program. Under his guidance and leadership as Minister for Fuel, Power and Natural Resources, President and Prime Minister, Pakistan developed into the unique Muslim State with a nuclear capability for which he paid with his life. In his book "If I am Assassinated" written from the Death Cell, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto revealed how Kissinger had said "We will make an example of you".

The Pakistan People's Party won the elections held in 1977 with a large majority; but the conspirators soon joined hands with Ziaul Haq at the behest of foreign powers who feared Bhutto's capacity of uniting the Third World countries and sought to punish him for developing Pakistan's nuclear capacity, and imposed Martial Law upon the country on 5th July, 1977. Soon afterwards, Bhutto was arrested and on 18th March, 1978, was sentenced to death in a politically motivated murder trial. The majority of original Court was for acquittal but was whittled down to a 4-3 verdict by the retirement of two judges. Despite appeals of clemency from several world leaders, Bhutto was executed on 4th April, 1979. The great leader of downtrodden masses and a visionary of unparalleled charisma will forever be remembered by his countrymen as Quaid-e-Awam (Leader of the Masses).


Zulfikar Ali Bhutto has earned a place in the pantheon of leaders from the Third World who earned everlasting fame in the struggle against colonialism and imperialism. He had the privilege of interacting with many of those leaders who played a great role in the epic struggle for national independence in the 20th Century including Mao Tse Tung, Ahmed Soekarno, Chou-en Lai, Jawaharlal Nehru Gamal Abdel Nasser and Salvador Allende. During the period between the end of the Second World War and the end of the Cold War, the world was divided into two blocks: The Capitalist West and the Socialist East. All these leaders aspired to aspects of a socialist pattern of economy. Bhutto shared their faith in a leading role for the public sector as an instrument of self-reliance.

President of Allende of Chile and Zulfikar Ali Bhutto of Pakistan pursued socialist democratic policies in countries long dominated by the military, and thus, were overthrown in the same year - 1977 by the collaborators of the Neo-Imperialists, killed at the behest of the Military Juntas of Pinochet and Zia and followed by long spells of repressive Military regimes which did not retreat until the Cold War drew to an end.

The key factor in the over throw of Bhutto was Pakistan's nuclear capability. The Karachi Nuclear Power Plant was inaugurated by Zulfikar Ali Bhutto as President of Pakistan at the end of 1972 but long before, as Minister for Fuel, Power and National Resources, he has played a key role in setting up of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission. The Kahuta facility was also established by Bhutto.

Bhutto's foundation of the PPP was a setback for the reactionary forces in a country long dominated by the Right. The slogan of "Food, Shelter and Clothing" shifted the focus of Pakistan politics from theological to economic issues. This focus has never shifted back. Bhutto nationalised the commanding heights of the economy; another blow to the capitalist West. During his tenure there was a massive transfer of resources towards the dominant rural economy by setting higher prices for agricultural products.

The Constitution of 1973, passed unanimously, is yet another lasting legacy of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto. Time has shown that it cannot be replaced. Constitution making in Pakistan was bedevilled, since the birth of the State, by three unresolved issues: (i) The role of Islam in the State, (ii) the degree of Provincial Autonomy, and (iii) the Nature of Executive. Bhutto managed to bring all the political parties, including those like the Jamat-e-Islami, JUI and JUP, who demanded an Islamic State, and the Awami National Party, which was the major party in the Frontier and Balochistan, calling for maximum provincial autonomy, to agree to a consensus on the Constitution, thus, permanently resolving all the three issues. A new institution, the Senate of Pakistan was, created in which the provinces had equal representation, in order to redress the balance of power in Pakistan, probably the only country in the world where one federating unit has an absolute majority. The creation of Council of Common Interest also gave to the provinces a greater weight in the federal dispensation. Islam was declared to be the State religion and the Council of Islamic Ideology given charge of Islamisation of laws. At the same time the Constitution reiterated the basic principle of socialism: "from each according to his ability to each according to his work".

The never ending tussle between the Head of State and Parliament was resolved by empowering the Prime Minister. Ironically, it is opponents of Bhutto who have, through 13th Amendment of 1997, restored the role of the Prime Minister as was envisaged in the original Constitution of 1973 after General Zia had shifted power to dissolve the Assembly and make key civilian and military appointments to the President No better tribute can be paid to the foresight and sagacity of the martyred leader.

Finally, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto had the courage of his conviction to decide to lay down his life rather than compromise or seek appeasement. The last chapter of his life is a glorious example of martyrdom for the cause of resurrection of democracy.

At the time of his overthrow, Bhutto was emerging as a spokesman of the World of Islam and the leader of the Third World. The age of Bhutto was an Age of Revolution. Although his life and career were cruelly terminated, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto will forever shine in history as one of the Great leaders who took part in the liberation of the Third World from the yoke of Imperialism and Neo Colonialism during the Twentieth Century.


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