Скачать The Gridlock Economy: How Too Much Ownership Wrecks Markets, Stops Innovation, and Costs Lives бесплатно
Michael Heller, "The Gridlock Economy: How Too Much Ownership Wrecks Markets, Stops Innovation, and Costs Lives"
Basic Books | 2008-07-07 | ISBN: 0465029167 | 304 pages | PDF | 1,5 MB
A startling and definitive account of the "tragedy of the anticommons," a hidden economic phenomenon that costs trillions in lost productivity and affects every field.
Garrett Hardin's famous "tragedy of the commons" states that when no one has a significant stake in some common resource--such as a grazing meadow, a stream, or clean air--the resource is inevitably overused and eventually degraded. But what about the reverse situation--when property rights in a resource are divided up too finely, and those rights are too closely held? How can you build on a plot of land where every square inch has a different owner?
This "tragedy of the anticommons"--first proposed by Michael Heller in 1998--is a problem of excessive property rights creating the underuse of resources. And the problem of the anticommons is everywhere: in excessive patent grants that prevent the development of lifesaving drugs; in real estate practices that ultimately lead to the loss of family estates; in regulations that divide up the broadcast spectrum in irrational ways; and in copyright laws that keep important works inaccessible to the public. The anticommons is a significant new idea that unifies many areas of economics, law, business, and the social sciences.
The Gridlock Economy introduces the problem of the anticommons to a wide general audience, explores the different types of situations that give rise to excessive property rights, tells readers how to recognize them, and offers practical solutions.
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